Allied Races Overview Everything about Allied Races, new playable races in World of Warcraft: Battle for Azeroth, including unlock requirements for each race, Heritage Armor, customization options, and speculation when they are playable. Battle for Azeroth (110-120) Leveling Tips and Consumables How to level from 110 to 120 as quickly as possible in WoW Battle for Azeroth, including recommended zone order, best consumables, general leveling tips, and best addons. Azerite Armor Overview and FAQ Everything known about Azerite Armor and Azerite Traits in Battle for Azeroth including what Heart of Azeroth Level they unlock and how to respec them using an Azerite Reforger. The Battle for Lordaeron - Introductory Battle for Azeroth Quests This guide is an overview of the Battle for Lordaeron scenario, including a walkthrough from both Alliance and Horde points of view. Wowhead's Guide on How to Play World of Warcraft The basics of getting started in World of Warcraft as a brand-new player. Game installation, character creation, how to move, and complete your first quest.
Let’s consider the fact, that the token price is rising again with the Virtual Blizzcon Ticket and possible Addon-Announcements for Blizzard Games. The reason the token is so cheap right now is the fact, that a lot of players bought Tokens for real money at the Shop. The more tokens are ingame, the less gold they cost. Supply and demand is the keyword here.
-Island Expeditions- Island expeditions was one of the new features I was looking forward to but Blizzard no longer makes games that are ready when they are ready but rather makes games ready when the deadline comes. Thus, many of the new features are completely stripped down from what was expected and it's literally just a small scenario you enter with two other players to continue to grind out your Azerite neck piece.
Once you get to about 200g, the theoretical limit of your profit virtually disappears. You now have enough money to start mass buying and reselling those players' goods who undercut everything by an extreme amount. Enchant mats are still a very good focus during this period, especially essences and crystals. You can now afford to buy several maelstrom and abyss crystals and wait until prices fluctuate to resell for a profit. A major strategy you can begin to employ is the multi-character trading and auctioning. If you come across 5 abyss crystals, get onto one character during peak hours and advertise a price 25-50% higher than average. When no one responds to this, quickly switch to another toon and offer the same 5 crystals for 10% lower than before. This will help to raise the median price because other sellers see what they may be able to get for their good. While they are cancelling and reposting, take this time to undercut their new prices, which is now more than you ever could have gotten before when prices were low. If you master this with BoE epics or more rare items, then you can make differences of thousands of gold.

Azeroth paid a terrible price to end the apocalyptic march of the Legion's crusade—but even as the world's wounds are tended, it is the shattered trust between the Alliance and Horde that may prove the hardest to mend. In Battle for Azeroth, the fall of the Burning Legion sets off a series of disastrous incidents that reignites the conflict at the heart of the Warcraft saga. As a new age of warfare begins, Azeroth's heroes must set out on a journey to recruit new allies, race to claim the world's mightiest resources, and fight on several fronts to determine whether the Horde or Alliance will lead Azeroth into its uncertain future.[9]
 Void elf (7.3.5) - "Many have sought to harness the corruptive magic of the Void. Most who tried have fallen into madness. Determined to use this power for the good of Azeroth, Alleria Windrunner is the first mortal to succeed at defying the shadow's whispers. Coming to the aid of a group of her kin who nearly gave in to the darkness, Alleria has vowed to train these Void Elves to control the shadows within them and pledge their newfound powers to the Alliance."
Item Level Cap Staying at 425 for Crucible of Storms The new raid, Crucible of Storms, is coming in a few weeks, on April 16th, and is bringing higher base item level drops than the Battle of Dazar'alor raid. This made it seem that the maximum possible attainable item level was also increasing, since the Mythic level drops from the Crucible are already at or very close to the 425 cap, before any war or titan forging happens and they had a "+" in the dungeon journal, indicating they could be upgraded. World of Warcraft WoW Mar 26, 2019 at 22:25 by Starym
Awesome trick really.  In this farm we'll be taking advantage of game mechanics to exploit a way into getting more defias loot drops.  The defias leggings and gloves have respective selling prices of 3,000g and 14,000g and only drop from 1 mob in the instance a staggering 1% of the time.  But do not fret, we can get the upper hand on this.  Much like past drop-combat farms, if you kill just one of the two defias overseer's in the instance, THEN drop combat, the one you killed will instantly respawn.  The trick here is to bring a character that can consistently drop combat and score many more kills than the average farmer.  To date, a hunter is best – with night elf being slightly better because of shadowmeld.  You can also bring potions of invisibility to boost the effect.  Anyway, while the average farmer only gets 1 shot to get these super rare xmogs, with this method you can get up to 40 chances in an hour.  Seems fair right?
While leveling, try to make use of the new Battle of Azeroth experience gem, Insightful Rubellite, which gives you +5% experience. Equipping one of these requires a socket in your gear, so try to hold on to a piece of Legion gear with a socket or acquire one of the Legion Legendary rings since every class has one. Each of the rings includes a socket. You can acquire one of these rings rather easily by doing World Quests in Legion zones and acquiring 1,000 Wakening Essences that can be used to purchase a legendary ring in the Legion version of Dalaran.

The same goes for the level 40 mount. An elite ground mount means still-faster leveling. Not only that, but you'll get knocked off considerably less often by mobs while getting around inside zones, meaning you'll die less often as well. Remember, as the goblins are so fond of saying, "Time is money, friend!" So it behooves you to get an elite ground mount as rapidly as possible.
When an allied race has been unlocked for a player, new characters from that race will start at level 20. If a player levels an Allied race from 20 to level 110 without using character boosts, they will be rewarded with a unique "Heritage Armor" for transmogrification that reflects the unique lore behind the race but is limited for use to that race. Doing the quests to unlock the allied races will also unlock the races' unique mounts for use by the characters of their faction.[5] The void elves, Lightforged draenei, Highmountain tauren, and Nightborne, as races tied to the storyline for Legion, were made available with the preorder on January 30, 2018.[7] The Dark Iron dwarves and the Mag'har orcs are made available upon completing the "War Campaign" in Kul Tiras and Zandalar and reaching Exalted with one faction's War Campaign reputation; the Kul Tiran humans and Zandalari will be made available later in the expansion. Game director Ion Hazzikostas also indicated that additional Allied Races may be available in the future.[8] Blizzard later confirmed that there will definitely be more Allied Races beyond Zandalari and Kul'tirans.[9]
“Having people feel strong emotions about something is the point of that faction alliance.” Kevin Martens, a designer on World of Warcraft, told Polygon. “With Legion, we had to work together against the more existential threat against the Legion and it’s great to do that once in a while. But the core of the game, that red versus blue content, it’s good to come back to that. For people to feel something about that, that’s special. That’s hard to do!”
World of Warcraft offers a lot of ways to make money (gold). There is no one "right" way to make money, although there are some definite wrong ways! Some people like to play the Auction House, some people do their daily quests, some people tend to farm, etc. Many characters do a combination of all three of these along with other activities. Below is a compendium of money-making methods.
While leveling, try to make use of the new Battle of Azeroth experience gem, Insightful Rubellite, which gives you +5% experience. Equipping one of these requires a socket in your gear, so try to hold on to a piece of Legion gear with a socket or acquire one of the Legion Legendary rings since every class has one. Each of the rings includes a socket. You can acquire one of these rings rather easily by doing World Quests in Legion zones and acquiring 1,000 Wakening Essences that can be used to purchase a legendary ring in the Legion version of Dalaran.
AWESOME spot.. if you are a druid, here's why.  This spot takes place on an island in the very north part of Stormheim, which is surrounded by water.  In this water are 2 groups of crabs that roam in packs of 12.  Each of these crabs can be skinned for scales and with the usual perks I mentioned in the earlier skinning spots.  (See spot 13).  The only catch is sometimes the crabs are very far apart and require some travelling to get to.  Druid travel forms not only have increased swim speed, but the wild charge ability allows you to swim 150% faster for 10 seconds, all the while replenishing your breath meter.  Pretty cool right?  I found that druids are AWESOME for farming this spot and can easily outclass other farmers here.  It's a druid spot that limits the competition – while ensuring you have the most uptime.  Very cool.  Gutting and level 3 stormscale skinning recommended.
The Auction House (AH) is a brilliant way of making money if you know the tricks on how to do it. The basic strategy with the AH is to buy things cheap, re-list them on the AH, and then sell them for a profit. Even better, of course, is to get good items from drops and then sell them on the Auction House for pure profit. Many players generate most or all of their cashflow simply by speculating on the AH. So a good understanding of the it, as well as some time to invest, is essential to turning it into a money-making proposition for you. It is also highly recommended that you get the Auctioneer addon for quick listing auctions, and knowing the average price of items. Another great addon that can assist you in flipping items for profit on the Auction House is Tycoon. This addon analyzes items on the Auction House such as cloth, ore, and even TCG mounts. Once the information is recorded, Tycoon will inform you of the most profitable items possible, and exactly how much you can make by either farming them, or buying them at their current price and then relisting them.
After each Time Trial, we will determine the top 8 teams for each region. The races between these teams will be broadcast live on Twitch each Saturday and Sunday throughout the season. Stay tuned to worldofwarcraft.com/esports and follow us on Twitter @Warcraft for the upcoming Mythic Dungeon International Viewers’ Guide and all things World of Warcraft esports.
The Horde and Alliance established footholds in Kul Tiras and Zandalar, seeking to use these staging points to launch large-scale assaults deep into enemy territory. These assaults cycle regularly between Kul Tiras and Zandalar, giving you an opportunity to help your faction attack or defend a zone. While the assaulting faction tries to break through their enemy’s defenses, defenders must rally the local forces to drive the invaders away.
This new farm takes advantage of the level scaling changes implemented by blizzard.  Event NPC's like the NPC's found in the twilight outpost, scale up or down depending on your level. HOWEVER, your level also determines which loot tables each mob will have.  By using a level 58 character, you can successfully loot items in the 57 – 59 item range, a range which has some of the most expensive and well sought after transmog items in the game.  In less than 30 minutes farming this spot I was able to snatch up some glorious legplates[/URL] (on video) – worth a stunning 150,000g.  Watch the video for absolute details I suppose, but the gist of it is you need to create a level 58 DK, go to the twilight camps, and start the killin'.  Unlike before, an implementation of a daily event has changed the loot tables!   This spot is the new hot thing on the block. 

“Having people feel strong emotions about something is the point of that faction alliance.” Kevin Martens, a designer on World of Warcraft, told Polygon. “With Legion, we had to work together against the more existential threat against the Legion and it’s great to do that once in a while. But the core of the game, that red versus blue content, it’s good to come back to that. For people to feel something about that, that’s special. That’s hard to do!”
From “The Burning Crusade” expansion, weapons like Klinge der Zauberei, Die Nachtklinge and recipes for different weapons are really valuable. The best example is Pläne: Teufelsstahlangschwert, worth 500.000+ Gold. These items are World Drops, you can find them in all raids and dungeons. I don’t know any Open World Drops, but that does not mean there are none. Another great transmog source are world bosses and rare spawns on Outland.
When an allied race has been unlocked for a player, new characters from that race will start at level 20. If a player levels an Allied race from 20 to level 110 without using character boosts, they will be rewarded with a unique "Heritage Armor" for transmogrification that reflects the unique lore behind the race but is limited for use to that race. Doing the quests to unlock the allied races will also unlock the races' unique mounts for use by the characters of their faction.[5] The void elves, Lightforged draenei, Highmountain tauren, and Nightborne, as races tied to the storyline for Legion, were made available with the preorder on January 30, 2018.[7] The Dark Iron dwarves and the Mag'har orcs are made available upon completing the "War Campaign" in Kul Tiras and Zandalar and reaching Exalted with one faction's War Campaign reputation; the Kul Tiran humans and Zandalari will be made available later in the expansion. Game director Ion Hazzikostas also indicated that additional Allied Races may be available in the future.[8] Blizzard later confirmed that there will definitely be more Allied Races beyond Zandalari and Kul'tirans.[9]
Explore Azeroth as one of six new playable Allied Races, including four you’ve encountered in your campaign against the Legion. Embark on a quest to earn their favor and unlock each race, adding their strength to your faction. Create a new character and complete the full leveling experience to earn a distinctive Heritage Armor set in World of Warcraft: Battle for Azeroth for PC.
For example, the Azure Whelpling belongs to the Dragonkin family. However, it has Beast, Magic, and Elemental abilities in addition to a Dragonkin attack. Different attacks are strong and weak against different family types. Having a diverse spell selection might increase your chances of being prepared with a strong attack against an opposing team.
Nov 6 Good kind server to join I am looking for a good server with kind people to join. I am thinking of 1 of the new player servers or moonguard maybe ? I don't like trolls or toxicty and i don't like guilds trying to get me to raid and then get mad when we wipe 4 or 5 times. I also hope for a clean trade chat as well as fresh minds of players who are not brainwashed by the elitist attitude. Any one know of any good servers ? I been playing wow for 14 years on and off but started a new account. It's getting harder to find good people on the internet in mobile games and online PC games. Any help is appreciated thanks.Promonk4 Nov 6
Nightborne Elves: Nightborne Elves are highly magical creatures you meet initially in the Legion expansion. The Nightborne were enslaved by The Burning Legion, but players band together to free them. The Nightborne ultimately decide to join the Horde, feeling closer alignment with the Horde's magical Blood Elves, rather than the Alliance's nature-loving Night Elves.

Both Burke and Danuser repeatedly stressed throughout the course of the interview that the Alliance is not a monolith of views and approaches. However, one character has taken the spotlight and the reigns of action: Anduin, the new high king. “With the death of Varian in Legion and the rise of Anduin to Kinghood, we’ve spent a lot of time on his character and showing his growth,” says Danuser. “He’s a great character, and we wanted to show how he interacts with big figures in the game.”
Drustvar is far and away the hardest Alliance zone, which is exactly why you want to do it first. If you have legendary items, they’ll still be usable, and if you don’t, this zone will still be easier early on than it will be later. Drustvar is also extremely fast and will let you jump out ahead of your competition in other zones, which means fewer players around to take your quest objectives.
I want to let everybody know that Zyrrael and I have been working really hard, we have 20-60 done and will be in the official release soon which can be found here (note, I am not Brutalis, Brutalis was involved with the 110-120 route) you can also use the beta which will have some of the 60-80 route for horde and alliance. If you need the horde and alliance routes, you can check out my youtube . They’re direct video from my streams focused on explaining what I’m doing and showcasing. I’ve stopped playing music so you can hear 100% of the audio.

If you find yourself coveting your first mount, and with no money to purchase it, try to swallow your frustration and work at earning and saving up so you can buy it honestly. Nothing is more annoying to other players who are working hard to earn their own money than hearing someone begging for gold so that they can buy a mount or fancy piece of gear.
This is an infinte farming spot that takes place just east of maraudon.   It requires you to stand in a specific spot which will allow you to kill all the slitherblade naga that surround the river.  This spot is generally a GREAT spot since the mobs respawn instantly after death.  You will get an obscene amount of silk, wool, greens, and low level patterns.  It's one of the only remaining infinite respawn farms left in the game.
This 1-110 ultimate leveling guide for WoW is to help leveling in wow go by smooth. Jburtonsemo is dedicated to helping players level up as fast as possible. Battle for Azeroth changes will be minimal so this guide will still be relevant. wow level scaling has made leveling an all new experience check it out! Not to mention with the new allied races, getting heritage armor requires leveling them to max level!
So tonight I took the plunge and thought hey let me buy a Zygor Guides subscription to see how it is. A guide backed by a subscriber base paying for a premium experience this has to be great right? I was wrong. I tested it by loading it up on the Honorboud Rep Guide. Cool it tells me to do World Quests and Island Expeditions. So far so good but hang on... What about the Wanted Quests? Those are by far the biggest boost to reputation. It did not mention them at all. So I thought that's fine it's probably because BFA is quite new. Loaded up a leveling guide on an alt. It was a complete mess. The guide was telling me to accept quests that A) would be horribly inefficient to level with and B) I already done. I also started noticing weird performance issues. Zygor was causing stuttering and FPS dips like crazy. So to close off I requested a refund and the person I spoke to did say I'll be getting one but we will see if that happens. Not getting my hopes up.
Sep 1 Blindsight's How to Choose a Server Guide [Originally posted by Blindsight-Spirestone on the old Warcraft forums--it's my understanding he no longer posts, but this is a valuable and informative guide] Since it's a frequently asked question on these boards, I've thrown together a quick guide for how to pick a server. Server Datacentre Location - New York, Chicago, Phoenix, Los Angeles First and foremost: Limit your search to servers that are as close to you (physically) as possible. Closer servers will have better latency, and thus deliver a better play experience. WoWWiki has a great list by datacentre: http://www.wowwiki.com/US_realm_list_by_datacenter Realm Type - PvP, PvE, RP, RP-PvP Now that you know which servers to look at, the next most important question is if you want to play on a PvE, PvP, RP, or RP-PvP server. RP vs. non-RP servers should be a simple choice: when interacting with other players, do you want to act "in character" replying to other players like they're living inside the world of Azeroth, or would you rather just play WoW like any other video game treating everyone else like a player at a keyboard? If you want to play on an RP server with active RPers: "Wyrmrest Accord and Moon Guard are very popular, but Moon Guard is very over populated." -Nok PvE vs. PvP is a bit of a tougher decision. On a PvP server, once you get to about lvl 20, in just about every questing zone you go to you can be attacked at any time by any player of the opposite faction (Horde vs. Alliance). If you like the idea of jumping other players while they're running around killing mobs/questing, this may be for you. If you don't like the idea of a max lvl player killing you in 1 shot when they ride by, then you may want to stick to PvE servers. Some people feel that PvP servers have a slightly more mature community since most children and/or immature players can't stand being killed randomly. Other people feel that PvP servers have a less mature community since it's full of teenagers who like to grief other players while they're just trying to quest. YMMV. Realm population - New, Low, Medium, High, Full The next major consideration for choosing a realm is the realms' population, both the total number of players and the Alliance / Horde ratio. This is a bit more complicated, and there are different ways of looking at the data. First, WarcraftRealms.com has a tool for taking a "census" of various realms, but it relies on data uploads from players on the server. Its data is only as accurate as the data it receives from player uploads, but it gives a pretty good baseline idea: http://www.warcraftrealms.com/realmstats.php?sort=Total Another useful way to look at population data is in terms of server age. Older servers tend to have higher populations. WoWWiki has a list of all US realms' creation dates: http://www.wowwiki.com/Timeline_of_the_creation_of_US_realms So that's great, but what does it mean? How does population affect the game? Here are a few points to consider: Empty servers: By far the easiest way of ruining the MMO experience is to have nobody to play with. Avoid servers with very low population. Queues: Very high population realms often have queue times. This could mean waiting for half an hour every time you want to play during prime time. During prime time (weekday evenings and weekends), check the realm status page to see if the server is listed as full: http://www.worldofwarcraft.com/realmstatus/ Economy: Higher population realms have more robust economies. This means the auction house will have many more items listed and will be much more competitive. 10/25 Man Raid PuGs: Higher population => more things happening => more groups going all the time. Pick up Groups will form more frequently and will fill faster, meaning you can play more and sit in town waiting for groups less. This also, however, means (on some servers) that PuGs can be more picky in who they take along since anyone can be replaced quickly. A/H ratio: Depending on how you like to play, you may want an even ratio so that everything that involves opposite faction interaction (like world PvP) are more fair, or you may want to be on the advantage side of an imbalanced ratio so that your side is usually winning. The only disadvantage with being on the plus side of a wildly imbalanced population is that soon, world PvP zones (i.e. Wintergrasp) will only allow the same number of players (beyond a minimum level of 20 players) from each faction in at the same time, so if nobody from the other side shows up, only 20 from your side can get in.Frejya117 Sep 1
As the war in Azeroth rages on, the champions of the Horde and the Alliance look to their in-game friends for help. Whether it’s levelling up for experience, gearing up for combat, or mounting up to see the world, World of Warcraft is always best enjoyed in groups, however big or small. If you have guildmates, friends, or family who haven’t been in Azeroth for a while, let them know they can play for free this weekend.

 Kul Tiran (8.1.5) - "Kul Tiras was founded by fearless explorers who sailed uncharted waters in search of adventure. As a key member of the Alliance of Lordaeron, the Kul Tiran navy dominated the seas of Azeroth with its legendary fleet. But after years of turmoil and hardship, the kingdom grew isolated and vulnerable to dark influences. Thanks to the help of brave heroes, House Proudmoore has been restored and Kul Tiras is poised to fight alongside the valiant Alliance once more."


Enchanting is a crafting profession that allows you to enchant gear with stat increases. It also allows you to disenchant gear for crafting materials. Enchanting uses crafting materials that can only be obtained from disenchanting gear. This means the only source is either crafting yourself or buying from other players. As the profession mostly revolves around stat increases only the legion recipes are relevant. The main ways to make gold with the profession is crafting and selling enchants and doing the enchanting shuffle. You can also make tomes of illusions, but they have fairly low demand.
You might be thinking that you don’t need a designated gold making character. I certainly didn’t think so as i used my Paladin for countless hours of gold making (Paladins are one of the slowest classes in the game). But then I decided to try to make a Fury Warrior with 170% base movement speed. Boy did that make a different, I run dungeons several times faster than the Paladin, hence making 3 or 4 times more gold per hour. When making a gold farming character, these are the most important points to remember.
Two new raids coming after the initial update differ drastically in size and content, depending on which side of the war you’re on. The Battle of Dazar’alor raid sees Alliance players trying to take over a city, but if you’re part of the horde, your version will see you try to defend it. Once you’ve beaten it once, you can then play the other side. The Crucible of Storms raid, on the other hand, is smaller and only consists of two bosses.
To me, certain character limits tend to be problematic not because of the length of actual content, but because of formatting tags and embedding taking up a lot of characters. This is something I experience on most of websites, not just this one, but the most aggravating issue over here is linking to user profiiles and other sources of strategies, which could be alleviated with internalisation of link paths and @mentions.
Kul Tiras is the home of the Proudmoores, most notably Katherine Proudmoore, Jaina’s mother. Here in World of Warcraft: Battle for Azeroth for PC, the Alliance players will need to involve themselves in the squabblings of the various great houses that each rule a zone and help settle their disputes in order to win their allegiance in the coming war.
Nov 11 New players welcome discord all new players and old players are welcome to join my server, we have been playing for awhile we can assist you with ur questions! 6300 30 posts 1 sec ago https://discord.gg/CNU53ju basicly made it so people can talk/make friends while playing any game, has 50+ people in the server, most people are on moonguard playing wow. this is a friendly server, we dont allow bullying! We prefer everyone to put eachother up instead of down. We have a suggestion box! and a music bot :) i am trying to get more people into the server so we can have events like stand up comedy. custom emojis available you just gotta send them to admin (Me) also looking for server mods to manage the server/improve it when im not around.Tenzo0 Nov 11
The steps from section two should be utilized and repeated until you reach about 25,000 gold. Once you hit that mark, two more options become available to you, the neutral auction house and cross-realm transferring. The latter is the single most effective way of making gold, although much planning must be done prior to it. However, the smaller methods you used to hit 25,000 should still be done as regularly as before. Nobody got to the cap with only BoE epics, it takes time and patience!

But the system offers a painful and mindless grind. At worst, it feels like a cheap and artificial wall blocking you from playing your character to its full potential. Levels of your heart come fast at first, but the costs become prohibitive when you get up into level 20 or so. This wouldn’t be an issue if the most powerful Azerite gear didn’t require reaching level 22 to unlock even 75 percent of their full damage, leaving players left out of features from gear they’ve already collected. This means more grinding.
From “The Burning Crusade” expansion, weapons like Klinge der Zauberei, Die Nachtklinge and recipes for different weapons are really valuable. The best example is Pläne: Teufelsstahlangschwert, worth 500.000+ Gold. These items are World Drops, you can find them in all raids and dungeons. I don’t know any Open World Drops, but that does not mean there are none. Another great transmog source are world bosses and rare spawns on Outland. 

Azeroth paid a terrible price to end the apocalyptic march of the Legion’s crusade—but even as the world’s wounds are tended, it is the shattered trust between the Alliance and Horde that may prove hardest to mend. As this age-old conflict reignites, gather your allies and champion your faction’s cause—for Azeroth’s future will be forged in the fires of war.
Obtaining Items from the Black Market Auction House Everything about the Black Market Auction House, including unique items for sale, how to place bids, and where to find the Auction House. Professions in Battle for Azeroth Professions in Battle for Azeroth, the next WoW expansion after Legion, have received a significant update, with many new recipes as well as a significant skill squish. In this overview, we'll highlight the major recipes, reagents, and useful items each profession offers. Obtaining Blizzard Shop and BlizzCon Vanity Items How to purchase and collect all of the mounts and pets from the in-game Blizzard Shop and special promotional events like BlizzCon. Obtaining All the WoW Trading Card Game Items Learn all about the quirky Trading Card Game items, from spectral mounts to weather machines, as well as look-alike items that are easier to obtain. 
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